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Urinary Tract Infection

Urinary Tract Infection: Causes, symptoms, Prevention

Urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that occurs when bacteria enter the urinary tract. The urinary tract includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. UTIs are the most frequent kind of outpatient infection in the United States, accounting for more than 8.1 billion medical visits each year. The urinary system is divided into two parts, which are the upper and lower urinary tracts. The upper urinary tract is made up of the ureters and kidneys, while the lower urinary tract is made up of the urethra and bladder.

What is a Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)?

A urinary tract infection (UTI) is an infection that affects any part of the urinary tract, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. A UTI is either “simple” or “complex.” Simple UTIs will often just affect the bladder. Complicated UTIs are infections that are resistant to antibiotics or that harm the kidneys.

UTIs are more common in women than men, with around 40-60% of females experiencing an infection at least once in their lives and 10% developing a UTI once a year. Females are more vulnerable than males because their urethra is shorter, allowing germs to enter the bladder more easily.

UTIs can cause a variety of symptoms, including pain or burning when urinating, cloudy or bloody urine, and the urge to urinate more frequently. If left untreated, a UTI can lead to serious complications, such as kidney damage. UTIs are usually treated with antibiotics. In some cases, home remedies, such as drinking plenty of fluids and urinating frequently, can help to relieve symptoms.

When it affects the lower urinary tract it is known as a bladder infection (cystitis) and when it affects the upper urinary tract it is known as a kidney infection (pyelonephritis) also when it leads to a kidney infection is referred to as pyelonephritis. The most common symptom of a UTI is a burning feeling when you urinate.

Signs and symptoms in females

Lower UTIs which affect the urethra and the bladder can cause in;

  • Pain, discomfort, or burning sensation when urinating.
  •  Frequent need to urinate
  •  The feeling that the bladder is not emptied
  •  cloudy, strong-smelling urine that may contain blood
  •  being ill, fatigued, and achy
  •  Sudden urge to urinate

Upper urinary tract infections (UTIs) which affect the kidney and ureters can result in;

  • Restlessness
  •  Confusion
  •  Vomiting and nausea
  •  Agitation
  •  Shivering and chills
  •  Side and back pain
  •  Fever

Signs and symptoms in males

  • Burning sensation and/or pain during urination
  •  Urgent need to urinate
  •  Frequent urination
  •  Lower abdominal pain
  •  Blood in the urine
  •  Cloudy urine
  •  Foul-smelling urine

Signs and symptoms in children

  • a strong and constant urge to urinate
  •  passing small amounts of urine frequently
  •  cloudy or bloody urine
  •  pain or burning sensation during urination
  •  low-grade fever
  •  abdominal pain or pelvic pain in girls
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In older adults or those with a catheter

Additional symptoms of UTI in older adults or those with a catheter include;

  • confusion
  •  agitation
  •  wetting themselves
  •  shaking
  •  shivering

Causes of Urinary Tract Infection

UTIs mainly arise when bacteria enter the urinary tract through the urethra and begin to spread in the bladder. The urinary system is meant to keep germs out. However, defenses occasionally fail. When this happens, germs can take root and grow into a full-blown infection in the urinary system.

The most common UTIs occur in women and usually affect the bladder and the urethra.

  • Bladder infection. This form of UTI is frequently caused by Escherichia coli (E. coli). E. coli is a species of bacterium that is typically found in the gastrointestinal system. However, other microorganisms might also be the cause.

A bladder infection can be caused by having sex, but you don’t have to be sexually active to get one. Because of their anatomy, all women are at risk of bladder infections. In women, the urethra is near the anus. And the urethral entrance is near the bladder. This makes it simpler for germs around the anus to enter the urethra and migrate to the bladder.

  • Urethra infection. It occurs when gastrointestinal bacteria travel from the anus to the urethra. Sexually transmitted infections can potentially cause urethral infection. They include gonorrhea, herpes, mycoplasma, and chlamydia, This is possible because women’s urethras are so near to the vagina.

Risk factors of UTI that are specific in women include

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are most common in women, the majority of women experience more than one case of UTI in their lifetime.

  • Female anatomy. The urethra in women is shorter than in men. As a result, bacteria must travel a shorter distance to reach the bladder.
  • Sexual activity. Being sexually active is associated with an increase in UTIs. Having a new sexual partner also raises the risk. Being sexually active can increase the risk of getting a UTI because bacteria from the genitals can be transferred to the urinary tract. This can happen during sexual activity, and it can also happen if you use a diaphragm for birth control.
  • Menopause. A decrease in circulating estrogen after menopause produces alterations in the urinary system. The modifications may raise the risk of UTIs.
  • Using certain types of birth control. UTIs may be increased by using diaphragms for birth control. Using spermicidal agents can potentially raise the risk.

Other risk factors for UTI include;

  • Urinary tract problems. Babies born with urinary tract disorders may have difficulty urinating. Urine can back up in the urethra, resulting in UTIs.
  • Catheter use. People who are unable to pee on their own must frequently urinate via a tube known as a catheter. The use of a catheter raises the risk of UTIs. People in the hospital may need to utilize catheters.
  • Blockages in the urinary tract. Urine might become trapped in the bladder due to kidney stones, an enlarged prostate in men, kidney tumors, or urinary tract tumors. As a result, the risk of UTIs is increased.
  • A recent urinary procedure. Urinary surgery or a medically assisted examination of your urinary system might both raise your chance of having a UTI.
  • Dehydration. Dehydration can increase the risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs) because it can lead to concentrated urine, which allows bacteria to grow more easily.
  •  Having poor hygiene. Poor hygiene can lead to more bacteria on the skin, which can then enter the body through cuts or mucous membranes. Poor hygiene can also lead to more bacteria in the urinary tract, which can then cause an infection.
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Complications of urinary tract infections

Lower urinary tract infections seldom cause problems when treated early and correctly. However, if left untreated, UTIs can lead to major health concerns. These concerns include;

  • A kidney infection caused by an untreated UTI might cause permanent kidney damage.
  •  Repeated infections occur when you have two or more UTIs in six months or three or more in a year. Women are more vulnerable to recurrent illnesses.
  • Sepsis is a potentially fatal infectious condition. This is especially dangerous if the infection spreads up the urinary system to the kidneys. Sepsis is a potentially life-threatening condition caused by an infection. The body’s immune system responds to an infection by releasing chemicals into the bloodstream to fight the infection. This can sometimes trigger a widespread inflammatory response, which can lead to organ damage and failure.
  • When a UTI arises during pregnancy, a low birth weight or preterm child is delivered.
  • A constricted urethra in males as a result of urethral infections.


These precautions may help reduce the risk of UTIs:

  • Drinking plenty of liquids, especially water; Drinking water aids in the diluting of urine. This causes more frequent urination, which allows germs to be flushed from the urinary system before an illness may develop.
  •  Wipe from front to back; perform this after urinating and after having a bowel movement. It aids in the prevention of germs spreading from the anus to the vagina and urethra.
  •  Emptying your bladder soon after having sex; when you empty your bladder soon after having sex, you can flush out any bacteria that may have entered your urethra during intercourse.
  •  Avoid potentially irritating feminine products; one should avoid feminine products that contain potential irritants such as fragrances, dyes, and other chemicals; use unscented pads and tampons, and avoid tight-fitting clothing
  •  Change your technique of birth control; certain types of birth control such as diaphragms and unlubricated condoms may increase the risk of UTI by causing changes in the vaginal environment that make it more hospitable to bacteria
  •  Drinking cranberry juice; cranberry juice contains a compound that can prevent bacteria from attaching to the walls of the urinary tract, which may help to prevent UTIs.
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A UTI is often diagnosed when a doctor questions a patient about their symptoms and tests a urine sample for the presence of white blood cells, red blood cells, and bacteria. A doctor may culture the urine in some circumstances to determine the type of bacteria causing the illness.

If a patient has recurring UTIs, a doctor may order further diagnostic tests to identify whether anatomical or functional abnormalities are to blame. Such tests may include;

  • Urodynamic; this technique assesses the ability of the urinary system to hold and discharge urine. Urodynamic testing evaluates patients with urinary symptoms, such as incontinence, frequency, or urgency. The test can help determine the cause of the symptoms and guide treatment.

Urodynamic testing is important in the evaluation of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs) because it can help to identify the underlying cause of the infection. In some cases, the cause of a UTI may be structural or functional abnormalities of the urinary tract that can be diagnosed with urodynamic testing. In other cases, urodynamic testing may help distinguish between different types of UTIs, such as those caused by bacteria and those caused by viruses.

  • Cystoscopy; Cystoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with UTI because it allows the physician to visualize the bladder and urethra directly. This direct visualization can help to identify the source of the infection, such as a urethral stricture or a bladder stone. Cystoscopy can also help to rule out other causes of urinary symptoms, such as bladder cancer.
  • Diagnostic imaging; Diagnostic imaging tests are important for patients with UTIs because they can help identify the cause of the infection and determine the best course of treatment. Imaging tests can also help rule out other causes of urinary symptoms, such as bladder or kidney stones.

There are a few different types of diagnostic imaging tests that can be used to help diagnose a UTI. These include; urinalysis, urine culture, CT scan and MRI, ultrasound, radiation tracking, and X-rays.

In conclusion, based on the information gathered, it can be concluded that UTI is a serious infection that can cause severe health problems. It is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible if you think you may have a UTI. It seems that UTIs are fairly common in women and can cause a variety of symptoms. While some UTIs can be treated at home, others may require antibiotics.

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